The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private,
nonprofit institutions that provide expert advice on some of the most
pressing challenges facing the nation and the world. Our work helps shape
sound policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science,
engineering, and medicine.
To meet the government's urgent need for an independent adviser on scientific
matters, President Lincoln signed a congressional charter forming
the National Academy of Sciences  in 1863 to "investigate, examine,
experiment, and report upon any subject of science."