Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China

This study presents evidence that closure of live bird markets, adverse publicity, and reduced prices resulted in sudden changes in movements of live poultry during H7N9 influenza epidemics. This led to significant increases in movements to neighboring provinces and other places without human cases. In these places, biosecurity and movement controls were limited and ineffective in limiting the spread of virus in poultry markets and thus resulted in human cases of the disease.

Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Poultry Worker, Pakistan, 2015

Avian influenza A(H9N2) virus isolated from a poultry worker in Pakistan in 2015 was closely related to viruses detected in poultry farms. Observed mutations in the hemagglutinin related to receptor-binding affinity and antigenicity could affect cross-reactivity with pre-pandemic H9N2 vaccine strains.

Influenza H5/H7 Virus Vaccination in Poultry and Reduction of Zoonotic Infections, Guangdong Province, China, 2017–18

Researchers compared the detection frequency of avian influenza H7 subtypes at live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China, before and after the introduction of a bivalent H5/H7 vaccine in poultry. The vaccine was associated with a 92 percent reduction in H7 positivity rates among poultry and a 98 percent reduction in human H7N9 cases.