Shigella flexneri Adherence Factor Expression in In Vivo-Like Conditions

Despite significant gains in understanding of Shigella infection, it remains unknown how the bacteria initiate contact with the colonic epithelium. This research identified conditions that mimic some features of gastrointestinal transit and that enable Shigella to express adherence structural genes.

Phase 3 Efficacy Trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara as a Vaccine against Smallpox

Researchers assigned 440 participants to receive two doses of MVA followed by one dose of the established replicating-vaccinia vaccine ACAM2000 (the MVA group) or to receive one dose of ACAM2000 (the ACAM2000-only group). No safety concerns associated with the MVA vaccine were identified, and immune responses and attenuation of the major cutaneous reaction suggest the MVA vaccine protected against variola infection.