Bactrian camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after experimental infection*

Dromedary camels play a significant part in the circulation and the zoonotic transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Researchers demonstrated that Bactrian camels are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and shed large quantities of infectious virus in nasal secretions. 

Risk Factors for MERS-CoV Seropositivity among Animal Market and Slaughterhouse Workers, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2014–2017

The study investigated risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) seropositivity in animal market and slaughterhouse workers at a site previously associated with zoonotic transmission of MERS. Given the large number of camels present, including many young camels, and the mixing of camels from multiple sources, this site probably facilitates MERS transmission among camels. Results demonstrated a relatively high MERS seroprevalence in workers at this site, ranging from six percent to 19 percent at each round across all occupations. 

Molecular Evidence of Human Monkeypox Virus Infection, Sierra Leone

Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic disease endemic to Africa. In 2017, research confirmed a case of human monkeypox virus in Sierra Leone by molecular and serologic methods. Sequencing analysis indicated the virus belongs to the West African clade and data suggest it was likely transmitted by wild animals.

‘Sentinel chickens’ implicate Florida Panhandle as epicenter for Eastern equine encephalitis virus in US

The study revealed extensive genetic diversity as well as spatial dispersal of EEEV within Florida. Additionally, Das and colleagues observed more clustering of the disease in the Panhandle region. The findings, they said, indicate that EEEV is present year-round in the Florida Panhandle and that the region could be “seeding” EEEV epizootics in the rest of the state and the Northeastern US.

Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States

In December 2017, a dog that had pneumonic plague was brought to a veterinary teaching hospital in northern Colorado. Several factors, including signalment, season, imaging, and laboratory findings, contributed to delayed diagnosis and resulted in potential exposure of >116 persons and 46 concurrently hospitalized animals to Yersinia pestis.

Efficacy of an Adjuvanted Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Vaccine in Dromedary Camels and Alpacas

Research found that vaccination with an adjuvanted Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Spike protein subunit vaccine confers complete protection from MERS disease in alpaca and results in reduced and delayed viral shedding in the upper airways of dromedary camels. Together, these data indicate that induction of robust neutralizing humoral immune responses by vaccination of naïve animals reduces shedding that potentially could diminish the risk of zoonotic transmission.

Global status of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: a systematic review

The review compiled and analyzed all published data on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels.