Two species of bats, as well as humans engaged in hunting these bats in Nagaland, India’s Mimi village, were found to have been exposed to viruses in the family Filoviridae, which includes Ebola and Marburg viruses.
Projecting the risk of Nipah virus outbreaks in humans requires identification of reservoir animals along with Nipah virus dynamics within those animals, while machine learning can be the first step to understanding the mechanisms underpinning epidemiologically important cross-species contacts.
Researchers used machine learning to identify bat species with that could host Nipah virus in India and identified four new bat species as surveillance priorities.
Dromedary camels play a significant part in the circulation and the zoonotic transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Researchers demonstrated that Bactrian camels are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and shed large quantities of infectious virus in nasal secretions.
Researchers surveyed dromedary camels in Ethiopia, and found a high seroprevalence for influenza D virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels.
The study investigated risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) seropositivity in animal market and slaughterhouse workers at a site previously associated with zoonotic transmission of MERS. Given the large number of camels present, including many young camels, and the mixing of camels from multiple sources, this site probably facilitates MERS transmission among camels. Results demonstrated a relatively high MERS seroprevalence in workers at this site, ranging from six percent to 19 percent at each round across all occupations.
The reservoirs of ebolaviruses have remained enigmatic, though fruit bats have been implicated and demonstrated as the reservoir for related Marburg virus. Last year a sixth ebolavirus species, Bombali virus, was found in saliva and faeces from bats in Sierra Leone.
Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic disease endemic to Africa. In 2017, research confirmed a case of human monkeypox virus in Sierra Leone by molecular and serologic methods. Sequencing analysis indicated the virus belongs to the West African clade and data suggest it was likely transmitted by wild animals.
The study revealed extensive genetic diversity as well as spatial dispersal of EEEV within Florida. Additionally, Das and colleagues observed more clustering of the disease in the Panhandle region. The findings, they said, indicate that EEEV is present year-round in the Florida Panhandle and that the region could be “seeding” EEEV epizootics in the rest of the state and the Northeastern US.
In December 2017, a dog that had pneumonic plague was brought to a veterinary teaching hospital in northern Colorado. Several factors, including signalment, season, imaging, and laboratory findings, contributed to delayed diagnosis and resulted in potential exposure of >116 persons and 46 concurrently hospitalized animals to Yersinia pestis.