The study investigated risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) seropositivity in animal market and slaughterhouse workers at a site previously associated with zoonotic transmission of MERS. Given the large number of camels present, including many young camels, and the mixing of camels from multiple sources, this site probably facilitates MERS transmission among camels. Results demonstrated a relatively high MERS seroprevalence in workers at this site, ranging from six percent to 19 percent at each round across all occupations.
Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic disease endemic to Africa. In 2017, research confirmed a case of human monkeypox virus in Sierra Leone by molecular and serologic methods. Sequencing analysis indicated the virus belongs to the West African clade and data suggest it was likely transmitted by wild animals.
The study revealed extensive genetic diversity as well as spatial dispersal of EEEV within Florida. Additionally, Das and colleagues observed more clustering of the disease in the Panhandle region. The findings, they said, indicate that EEEV is present year-round in the Florida Panhandle and that the region could be “seeding” EEEV epizootics in the rest of the state and the Northeastern US.
In December 2017, a dog that had pneumonic plague was brought to a veterinary teaching hospital in northern Colorado. Several factors, including signalment, season, imaging, and laboratory findings, contributed to delayed diagnosis and resulted in potential exposure of >116 persons and 46 concurrently hospitalized animals to Yersinia pestis.
Research found that vaccination with an adjuvanted Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Spike protein subunit vaccine confers complete protection from MERS disease in alpaca and results in reduced and delayed viral shedding in the upper airways of dromedary camels. Together, these data indicate that induction of robust neutralizing humoral immune responses by vaccination of naïve animals reduces shedding that potentially could diminish the risk of zoonotic transmission.
The review compiled and analyzed all published data on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels.
The researchers found that the inflammation sensor that normally triggers the body's response to fight off stress and infection, a protein called NLRP3, barely reacts in bats compared to humans and mice, even in the presence of high viral loads.
Researchers surveilled camels in Egypt, Tunisia, and Senegal to include other domestic mammalian species in contact with infected camels.
Scientists will conduct research in two national parks in southern Africa that differ in the timing and severity of anthrax outbreaks. They will investigate the roles of host, pathogen and environment to understand how the pathogen-host interaction evolves and contributes to the differences in anthrax occurrences in the two study areas.
Ross River virus is Australia’s most common mosquito-borne disease. It infects around 4,000 people a year.